Stover Mfg. & Engine Co.
Instructions for Operating Stover Type K EnginesHit & Miss & Throttle Governing with Letters KA on Name Plate When engine is received, crating should be carefully removed to avoid damage to engine. Any tags attached to the engine should not be removed until engine has been in operation and the instructions on the tags thoroughly understood. When tags are finally removed they should be retained for future reference.
LOCATION OF ENGINE:In locating the engine ample space should be provided around the engine to allow easy access to all parts. At least three feet should be allowed between the governor side of engine and building wall. The Pulley side, if located next a wall, can be placed closer than three feet. When engine is installed in a building the exhaust should be piped outside, using a pipe that is as short as possible. Bends or elbows in the exhaust pipe are to be avoided wherever possible, as turns in pipe cause back pressure on engine and if exhaust pipe is longer than 15 feet the size of pipe should be increased. Care should be taken not to connect an exhaust pipe with a chimney or any opening which has been used for other purposes. A vertical exhaust pipe should be provided either with a cap or muffler to keep the rain out. It is sometimes necessary to provide a small drain in the lowest part of the exhaust pipe to drain out water which may collect and interfere with the operation of the engine. Since exhaust pipe may become red hot care should be taken not to place pipe near any wooden part of building.
Grease cups should be filled and screwed down until grease appears at the ends of the bearings. The glass cylinder oiler should be screwed in place and filled with a good grade of gas engine oil.
Examine all moving parts, especially the governor, and see that parts do not stick from grease or paint. This grease or paint is applied to protect parts during shipping and a small amount of gasoline or benzine will aid its removal. All parts are adjusted before leaving factory and should be in first-class condition unless damaged in shipment. If instructions are carefully read, engine kept clean and all moving parts are kept in adjustment and well oiled, no trouble should be encountered in the operation of the engine.
PREPARATION FOR STARTING:Fill fuel tank. Before the engine is started for the first time the cylinder head nuts should be tightened up alternately and after engine is warmed up the first time these nuts should again be tightened alternately, thus preventing the blowing out of the cylinder head gasket.
Fill hopper with water to within about three inches of the top. Engine can be more quickly turned on kerosene if only enough water to cover cylinder is used when starting. In extremely cold weather hot water will aid in starting, using only enough to cover the cylinder.
Oil all moving parts.
Turn the engine over by hand to make sure that everything is in proper working condition, checking valve timing and ignition to see that no change has taken place during shipment. Engines as shipped are in correct adjustment and ordinarily no correction is needed for some time.
STARTING ENGINE: Close starting damper.
Move spark advance lever toward flywheels to retard spark and thus prevent engine kicking back when cranked.
Place starting crank on engine and crank rapidly, holding the inlet valve open with the left hand until one or two revolutions, after which, hand should be removed from inlet valve as engine will have attained sufficient speed so that it can be turned over against compression. As soon as engine has taken one explosion the starting damper should be opened, since if left closed after the engine has started too much fuel will be drawn in cylinder and mixture will be too rich to ignite.
After engine starts, the spark advance lever should be moved toward cylinder head to advance spark.
The throttling governing engine is provided with a gasoline reservoir for starting. In starting close the kerosene needle valve, fill the reservoir about three-fourths full of gasoline, and open the gasoline needle valve about onehalf turn. After the engine has operated long enough to warm up, the gasoline needle valve should be closed, and the kerosene needle valve opened. The needle valves on both the hit and miss and throttling governing engines are marked, to show the correct running position when the engine was tested at the factory. This position will vary somewhat due to local or atmospheric conditions and altitude therefore, the operator should adjust the needle valve so the engine will operate on the least amount of fuel without missing explosions.
After the proper location is found, needle valve should be marked with a file. This location may change, due to wear on needle valve seat and valve should be kept adjusted to use the minimum amount of fuel. If engine is run on kerosene before it is thoroughly warmed up it will probably be necessary to open the needle valve to give more fuel than will be required for best position after engine is warmed up.
Too much fuel will be indicated by black smoke at the exhaust, and if the engine is given too much fuel in starting the engine will be flooded. Particular care should be taken when engine is hot as it is easily flooded. In case engine becomes flooded close needle valve and bold in the inlet valve with hand, turning the engine over a number of times in order to work out excess fuel.
When engine is hot it can frequently be started without using starting damper. Engine will sometimes miss explosions if it is not receiving enough fuel Starting is aided by priming with gasoline but this is usually not necessary. To prime engine, push open the auxiliary air valve on front of mixer with the end of oil can spout and squirt in gasoline.
STOPPING ENGINE:Close fuel needle valve. Shut off oiler by turning down lever on oiler stem. Drain hopper whenever there is danger of freezing. When engine is to stand idle for a long time the flywheels should be turned so that the exhaust valve is closed to prevent the inside of cylinder from rusting. The engine may also be stopped by placing a switch in the ignitor line.
This wastes some fuel when stopping but does not require closing the needle valve to stop engine. If this is done wire must be very short and Switch point kept clean or spark will be reduced.
VALVES AND VALVE TIMING:The seats on valves must always be kept in good condition, to prevent the engine from losing its compression. Should the engine turn too easily while being cranked by band, it is evident that compression is being lost, either past the valves or past the piston. Valves should be examined occasionally to see that they are not sticking. This can be done by pushing on end of valves by band, to see if valve stem has become gummed up. If the valve sticks, same may be cleaned with kerosene, working valve stem- in and out by hand, and then oiling with lubricating oil, care being used not to place too much oil on valve stem.
Should it be necessary to regrind valves, the cylinder bead should be removed, and valves ground by the use of fine emery and oil, or valve grinding compound, which can be obtained from any garage. Valves should be ground in until they show a bright seat all around. To .-rind valves the springs should be removed, and valves and valve seats cleaned with kerosene. When grinding, valve should be turned with a screw driver or carpenter's brace with screw driver bit, first to the right and then to the left, lifting the valve off seat occasionally to let the paste get on the seat. Care should be taken not to permit valve grinding compound to get into valve stem guides, and after grinding the valves, valve seats in cylinder head and valve guides should be cleaned with gasoline to remove grinding compound
Before placing cylinder head on engine, the tightness of the valve seat should be tested by pouring gasoline into the intake or exhaust port, if gasoline leaks past the valve seat grinding should be continued until there is no leakage. Loss of compression caused by a small particle of carbon lodging on valve seat, can sometimes be helped, by turning valve around a few times with a pair of pliers, without removing cylinder head from engine, or removing springs from valve stems.
The inlet valve is automatic in its action, being opened by the suction of the engine. The exhaust valve is opened by means of the exhaust cam operating through the side rod, and should open approximately 35 degrees before the crank has reached its outer center, and should close from 3 to 5 degrees after the crank has passed the dead center at the end of the exhaust stroke. The crankshaft pinion and cam gear are marked for the proper meshing of teeth, to give this opening when the screw adjustment on exhaust lever is properly set. In setting valves the adjusting screw should be set for the closing of the valve, and the engine turned over to see that the valve starts to open at approximately the right location. After setting valves the ignition should be checked. (See instructions for setting ignition.)
PISTON:Compression may also be lost past the piston as rings may be worn or fast in grooves. Occasionally the piston should be removed and rings cleaned. To do this remove the crank shield, and disconnect connecting rod from crank care being taken when removing connecting rod bolts and' caps, that liners are not mixed up so that they cannot be replaced in their original position.
It is very important that Ignitor Wire be removed before starting to remove piston.
If the rings are found to be fast in the grooves, clean them by washing in kerosene, working them up and down in the grooves until free, after which the rings should be removed. This can be most easily done by using three strips of tin about 1/2 inch wide by 6 inches long, slipping one piece of tin under the middle of the ring and placing the other two close to the ends. After strips are in place the rings can be easily pushed off the piston by sliding them along the tin strips, removing, of course, one ring at a time.
All carbon should then be scraped out of grooves and off rings, and after replacing on piston, wash thoroughly in gasoline to remove all grit and dirt Then oil piston and rings thoroughly, and place piston in cylinder in its original position, with the oil hole for oiling piston pin on top. If piston pin set screw becomes loose or has been removed, be sure that end of screw enters piston pin, and that screw is tight.
When installing new rings, always file end of rings until there is about 1/64 inch clearance between the end of rings when placed in cylinder. Rings should be fitted to cylinder before being placed on piston.
CARE OF HOPPER:The engine is cooled by the use of water around the cylinder, and the level of water should never be allowed to fall as low as the top of the cylinder wall, as the cylinder will get too hot. The water will boil away under heavy load, and more water should be added to replace that boiled away, care being taken not to pour cold water on a hot cylinder that has run dry, as the cylinder being hot may crack. The cylinder is liable to be broken if water is left standing in it during cold weather unless some nonfreezing solution is used.
A non-freezing solution can be made by mixing calcium chloride in the portion of about 3 pounds of calcium chloride to each gallon of water. It is better, however, to drain the jacket in freezing weather.
When possible to do so it is better to use rain water or cistern water, as in some localities a deposit of lime win form in the hopper and cylinder head, which will cause the engine to become overheated. To remove this lime deposit, a solution can be made of 7 parts water and I part muriatic acid, allowing this solution to stand in cylinder from 24 to 36 hours. In mixing the above solution always remember to pour the acid in the water, not the water in the acid. The acid should be poured in slowly and the water should be kept stirred while pouring.
LUBRICATION:The cylinder oil cup has an adjustable feed, which should be adjusted to feed sufficient oil to lubricate the cylinder and piston.
A high grade gasoline engine lubricating oil should be used. In cold weather the oil will not flow as freely as in warm weather, and to overcome this a lighter grade of oil should be used.
The cylinder oiler should be shut off when the engine is not in use by dropping the small lever on top of the oiler.
The oiler should be set to feed oil according to the size of the engine, the amount -being about as follows: 2 H. P. engine should have 5 to 6 drops per minute. This amount is for use after engines are thoroughly worn in and is the minimum requirement. Use double the above amount until engine has been in operation several days, and then gradually decrease amount of oil. When operating on full load on kerosene, the above quantity should be increased. Keep in mind that when using kerosene, more oil is required than for gasoline. When starting in cold weather it is a good plan to put some oil on end of piston where it projects from cylinder. If this is not done, warm oil can be added to oiler so that oil will flow freely. After engine is warmed up, the heat will usually cause the oil to flow. Blue smoke at the exhaust indicates too much oil. Engine should have an excess of oil at first, but when a well worn in engine smokes at exhaust, it is well to reduce amount of oil.
BEARINGS:Grease cups should be filled with a good grade of hard oil, and screwed down until the grease shows at end of bearings when starting engine up for first time. After engine is in operation they should be screwed down onehalf turn every half-hour for several hours. After engine has been in operation for several hours and bearings show no tendency to beat from a tight belt or other cause, the intervals between screwing down cups can be lengthened until engine has been in operation several days. After this a quarter to one-half turn every 2 to 3 hours is sufficient.
Worn bearings can be adjusted by taking out shims, care being taken to remove the same amount, if possible, from each side of the bearing. After removing a thin shim from each side of bearing, screw down cap and turn crankshaft by hand to see that bearing does not bind. It is sometimes necessary to replace one shim or make thin shims of paper. Bearings, such as crankshaft and connecting rod should be kept adjusted to prevent pounding, which will cause excessive wear on bearings.
The engine is kept at its rated speed by means of the governor. As the speed increases the governor balls move out, which forces in the governor spindle plunger against the throttle shoe which is in turn attached to the throttle lever. (See cut of governor.) The throttle lever working through the throttle rod opens and closes the throttle valve, and thus regulates the speed of the engine. The position of the throttle valve, as shown in the cut is with the throttle valve open and the governor balls together. The throttle valve should work on equal sides of the center line as shown. Set throttle shoe 1/16 inch from end of plunger.
The action of the governor on the hit and miss engine is similar to that used on the throttle governing engine. The governor spindle plunger works against the detent lever on which the detent blade is attached. The action of the governor weights forces the governor spindle out and against the detent lever, which in turn engages the detent blade with the detent catch block on the side rod. When the detent blade and the catch block are engaged, the exhaust valve is held open causing the engine to cut out, and run idle, until the speed has been reduced to such a point, that the engine needs another explosion, at which time the action of the governor weights releases the plunger pin, and permits the engine to take another explosion.
In testing, the detent is carefully adjusted. As the blade and catch block are of tool steel upon which the wear is very slight, they should need no adjustment for some time. There is, however, a natural wear on all working parts, therefore, after the engine has been in operation for a long time. the detent blade or catch block may need replacement. Irregular explosions, and the engine running erratically, are indications of a worn detent blade or catch block. This is caused by the detent blade slipping off the catch block. Either the detent blade or catch block can be very easily replaced.
If the trouble referred to above is experienced, do not attempt to correct it by grinding the detent blade or the catch block, for if either are shortened this will produce a knock caused by the cam striking the earn roller. When rep' -acement of the detent blade or catch block is required it should be adjusted as follows:
When the engine is at rest and the side rod in the extreme forward position, and the detent blade is engaged with the detent catch block, the detent lever should be A inch from the end of the governor spindle plunger. There should be 1/32 inch of clearance between the detent blade and the detent catch block, so as to allow the detent blade to pass the detent catch block. In either removing or replacing the detent catch block, care should be exercised in returning the same to tighten the screws, as it is very important this part does not loosen. The engine will not operate properly unless these parts are held tightly in place.
The engine is provided with a speed changer located above the governor. This enables the speed of the engine to he decreased. It is not the intention that this speed changer be used to make a permanent change in speed of engine. If the driven machines do not run at correct speed, the size of the pulleys should be changed. However, the speed changer may be used to decrease the speed of the engine for a short time and this is its purpose and should be so used.
FUEL TANK:The fuel tank is provided with a drain plug to be used to draw off any water which may collect in tank, or to empty tank of fuel. The lower end of the suction fuel line is provided with a screen and check valve. Should the engine refuse to run for lack of fuel, when tank is filled, it is probable that screen has become clogged or dirt has lodged under check. To remove check valve, unscrew nut holding -oilpe on mixer, then unscrew pipe plug through which tube passes, and the check valve can be taken out and cleaned. Valve may be tested by pouring gasoline in it or by blowing, before replacing.
GEARS:Should it be necessary to remove gears from engine, care should be taken that they be replaced in their former location. Gears are marked before leaving factory and these marks should be noted before gears are removed. The above applies only to crankshaft pinion and cam gear.
CYLINDER HEAD PACKING:When replacing cylinder head gasket, always scrape off old gasket carefully, and when tightening up nuts draw up all the nuts until they start to come tight, then tighten each nut not over 1/4 turn before tightening up others. After cylinder head has warmed up, the nuts should be again tightened. It is a good plan to use lubricating oil on gaskets before placing on cylinder.
IGNITION: WEBSTER LOW TENSION
Always retard spark by moving timing lever towards flywheels before cranking engine, as engine may kick back if this is not done. After engine starts the spark should be advanced by moving lever towards cylinder head.
Always remove wire from magneto terminal or stationary electrode before removing piston from engine.
All moving parts of the magneto should be oiled daily, using a light oil. The small oil cups for oiling armature bearings should not be flooded with oil, as a few drops at a time are sufficient and too much oil may work down into the windings of the coils and in time cause damage.
The magneto should be kept clean and all nuts and bolts tight if it is to give good service.
Before starting the engine the first time and occasionally thereafter, the timing of the magneto should be checked. The magneto should trip when mark on the flywheel is opposite the side rod. If magneto is found to be out of time through wear or movement of parts, the nuts on push rod should be adjusted until it trips at the correct time. Should it be necessary to set the bracket which carries the push rod, the engine should be turned so that the push rod is at the extreme end of its travel toward crankshaft. Then set bracket on rod so that the nuts are about central on threads of push rod, (see cut), with about -?a inch clearance between the end of push rod and trip on magneto. Then turn the engine to firing position and adjust nuts until magneto trips at the right time. After setting nuts, turn engine over by hand several times to check timing. There should always be some clearance between push rod and magneto trip when push rod is at end of travel toward fly-wheel or push finger can not drop down and pick up magneto.
If engine misses badly it may be possible that ignitor points are dirty. These can be cleaned to some extent by pushing the movable electrode in and out by hand. To test spark of magneto, remove wire from stationary electrode, and hold end on springs or movable electrode arm, and trip magneto with hand lever and see if any spark occurs. If a spark is secured, the magneto is 0. K. and if engine will not run the magneto should be removed from engine and tripped by hand. If no spark occurs the insulation on stationary electrode may need cleaning or replacing, or terminal on stationary electrode may be touching some part of magneto. Clean the points with emery cloth or a fine file and try it again. Do not decide that magneto is at fault until everything has been tried. Never take magnets off or take magneto apart If no spark occurs when magneto is tripped by hand, when end of wire is held tightly against some moving part it may be possible that wire is broken and should be replaced. If this is done a good wire should be used.
In case of movable electrode sticking, remove the small screw above electrode and wash out with kerosene, working the electrode by hand until loose. A drop or two of oil does not hurt movable electrode but if too much is used oil gums up and causes electrode to stick. The above applies to Webster Magnetos.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CARE OF WICO TYPE EK MAGNETOS
1. OILING. Oil Magneto Every Working Day with the same oil that is used in the engine cylinder. Special oil is not required. There is little danger from excessive oiling.
2. CLEANING. A magneto used constantly in the open will in time become caked with dirt and grease. This condition will cause no decrease of spark strength. If, however, the working parts are kept clean, the life of the magneto will be prolonged. Occasionally, remove the front cover of the magneto and also the moving parts and clean around the breaker points with a clean rag and small hardwood stick. Keep points of contact between the armature and the cores clean by wiping with a clean rag.
3. MAGNETS. Do not Remove the Magnets. It is unlikely the magnets will ever need recharging unless they are removed from the machine.
4. TROUBLE HUNTING. If ignition trouble is suspected, disconnect the spark wire from plug and observe spark between wire and engine frame by holding end of wire about 1/8 inch from frame while cranking engine. If good spark is produced trouble may be caused by dirty spark plug. If no spark is produced when magneto is operated, the trouble can be located by proceeding as follows:
See that the armature (100) returns and makes a firm contact with the cores (107) after being tripped off. Failure to make firm contact indicates friction of moving parts caused by lack of oil.
Remove any dirt from between armature and face of cores.
Turn the flywheel over slowly and see that when the armature (100) is tripped it snaps quickly away from the cores (107). Failure to do this indicates binding or friction or a broken drive spring (186).
Check up the "latch-off" of the trip finger, and if wrong, make it right.
The latch should slip off the lip of the rocker arm just after the armature has opened A in. to A in. If necessary to adjust, proceed as follows:
Trip the armature (100) from its contact with the cores (107) and insert a strip of metal A in. to 7/64 in. thick between the armature and the face of the cores. Move the push rod slowly until the latch of the trip finger reaches the rocker arm. The edge of the latch should then just engage the edge of the latch block (5) on the rocker arm (406), and the adjusting screw (419) should be bearing on the top side of the latch (See Cut), so that the least further movement of the push rod will cause the latch to slip off the latch block.
If the latch does not engage the latch block when the armature is set as above, the adjusting screw should be screwed in until the latch just engages. If the latch engages the latch block too much (more than 312 in.), unscrew the adjusting screw to give the proper engagement. Loosen the lock nut on the adjusting screw (419) before attempting to change adjustment and be sure to set it up tight after the adjustment has been made. Before attempting to start the engine, remove the metal strip that you placed between the armature and Cie cores.
MOVING PARTS:All moving parts can be withdrawn from the magneto by lifting the armature (100) from its magnetic contact with the cores (107). This operation does not weaken the magnets. When replacing the armature make sure that the felt oil pad slips over the guide rod.
REMOVAL OF COVERS:The covers of the magneto are held in place by the band which is fastened by four screws, two at each end of the magneto. The removal of these screws allows the band to be lifted and the covers to be removed.
If spark plug replacement is necessary care should be taken to use the same length of plug supplied with the engine which is extra long, 7/8 in. S. A. E. measuring 1% in. from the shoulder to the end of the plug.